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AFP is useful in monitoring some testicular germ cell tumours and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. After treatment, e.g. orchidectomy, levels fall with a half-life of approximately 45 days. Values > 500 ug/L are virtually diagnostic of malignancy. However, 50% of all malignancies have values < 500 ug/L. AFP can also be raised in a variety of non-malignant liver disorders, where levels are usually < 100 ug/L.